Bukankah protein dalam tumbuh-tumbuhan seperti napier tinggi kandungannya, tapi itulah dahulu cerita lama mana lah nak tahu kalau tak tanya dan kurang baca. Dulu kami beri kambing makan napier tapi satu perkara penting kami terlepas pandang. Kami potong rumput napier banyak2 dan longgokkan pada satu tempat cukup untuk seminggu. Hasilnya senang sikit kerja hari2 tak payah potong rumput tapi malangnya napier yang dipotong dan disimpan dalam masa lama ni ada kekurangannya iaitu kandungan protein dalam daun menurun kerana daun layu dan daun tua rupa2nya mempunyai kandungan serat lebih tinggi berbanding protein. Makin rendahlah peratusan protein dalam diet kambing.
Rentean daripada semua diatas, bakteria pengurai protein dalam perut kekurangan makanan dan mati kebuluran dan hilanglah keseimbangan rumen. Rupa2nya bakteria ini perlukan minimum 7~8% untuk keperluan minima. Perghh.. kurang protein kuranglah imuniti badan melawan penyakit dan bahan mentah menyembuhkan tisu yang rosak dan membina otot baru. Senanglah cacing bermaharajalela. Boleh rujuk sumber bagus tentang kepentingan protein dibawah: Sumber: http://animalscience.tamu.edu/files/2012/04/ASWeb081-goatprotein.pdf
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Goat Nutrition - Protein
by Dr. Rick Machen
Associate Professor & Extension Livestock Specialist
Texas Agric ultur al Exte nsio n Service, Uvalde
Question: What is protein?
The five major categories of nutrients are:
Protein consists of the elements carbon, hyd rogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. Th ese elements are
assembled into links called amino acids. Amino acids are the n hooke d together, like links in a chain, to
The most common and econom ical sources of protein for goats in the Southern US are the oilseed
mea ls: cottons ee d, soyb ea n, pe an ut an d sun flower. The cereal gr ain s and forages also con tain p rotein
When feed, forage or hay is analyzed for protein content, the chemist is actually measuring the
amount of nitrogen (N) in a sample. P roteins, on ave rage, contain 16% nitrogen. The ratio of N conten t to
the entire sample is
100% ÷ 16% = 6.25.
The 6.25 is a conversion factor: crude protein content of a sample is determined by multiplying the N
content by 6.25. For example, if a feed sample had 2.56% N, its crude protein content would be
2.56 x 6.25 = 16%.
Protein is associated with the contents or inside of a plant cell. The protein content of old, dry,
weathered grass is low because the plant cells have ruptured or dried out. Therefore, the cell contents have
been lost or are a small portion of the total weight of the dormant plant. The fiber (relatively less digestible)
to cell content ratio is very high. In contrast, young, green, growing plants are made up of active, growing
cells that contain proteins and other nutrients. The fiber to cell content ration is now very low.
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How are proteins digested?
When feed is ingested by a goat, salivary enzymes initiate the digestion process immediately. Upon
arrival in the rumen (the larges t of the four stomac hs ), the fee d is gre eted by literally m illion s of m icros co pic
bacteria. These bacteria are the key to the nutritional well-being of a ruminant. In fact, it is these
cellulose-digesting bacteria that enable a goat to digest leaves from woody plants, forbs (weeds) and grass.
Cottonseed meal 41
Soybean meal 44
Pea nut mea l 52
Grain sorghum 10
Alfalfa hay 17
Prairie hay 5
Bacteria in the rumen break down dietary proteins into individual amino acids. These amino acids
are then used by the bacteria to construct bacterial protein and make more bacteria.
Bacteria are continuously being flushed out of the rumen, through the reticulum, to the omasum
(where moisture is removed from the digesta) and finally to the abomasum or fourth stomach .
The abomasum is similar to a monogastric (meaning one stomach; human, pig, chimp, etc.)
stomach . It is a very acidic environment. In the abom asum, the bacterial proteins are broken down into
amino acids, which pass through the small intestine and in to the bloodstream.
What is by-pass protein?
By-pass protein, mo re ap prop riately k nown as esca pe protein , is that po rtion of the d ietary p rotein
that escapes degradation in the rumen and arrives in the abomasum in its intact, dietary form. Obviously,
there is some efficie nc y to b e ga in b y avo idin g th e b ac terial breakdown and reco ns truc tion p revio us ly
Fe ed stuffs differ in their esca pe protein va lue s: protein from pla nt source s (soyb ean m ea l,
cottonseed meal, wheat mids, etc.) generally has a lower escape value than that of animal origin (feather
meal, blood meal, fish meal, etc.).
Caution: The bacteria in the rumen have a well defined nitrogen requirement. If too much of the
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dietary protein escapes degradation in the rumen, the available N in the rumen will be deficient and the
bacterial population will suffer.
The minimum crude protein content of a goat s diet is thought to be 7-8%. Below that, rumen
bacteria suffer and so does performance of the goat.
Most commercially prepared goat feeds contain 12-17% crude protein - enough to support those
itty, bitty, all-important bacteria and the productivity of their hosts, your goats.
Bottom line: Most goat owners need not concern themselves with the escape protein content of
their precious darling s diet.
Jadi, kena banyak lagi belajar tentang diet harian kambing. Alhamdulillah kambing kami sekarang dah makin sihat dengan sedikit ilmu yang dipelajari. Banyak lagi perlu dipelajari. Pelet itu bagus, rumput napier juga bagus tapi cara menggunakan sumber yang ada dengan betul lebih penting. Insyaallah ada rezeki menjadilah kambing kami. Wallahu'alam